Zoonosis are infectious deseases of animals that can be transmitted to humans.
Zoonosis can be caused by different pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites.
A human can also infect animals, it is called reverse zoonosis.
The human is contaminated during his professional activity in contact with live animals, their dead bodies, carcasses or derived products. They belong to the list of "Occupational Diseases" (rabies, leptospirosis, tularemia, dermatophytosis, tuberculosis ...).
The contamination is difficult to predict (rabies following a bite, for example).
The contamination occurs through non-occupational activity (leptospirosis following swimming in polluted water, tularemia for a hunter ...).
They are transmitted to humans by a pet in the familial house (ringworm, chlamydophilosis, salmonellosis, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, etc).
Exotic pets are concerned mainly with family zoonotic diseases, but also by occupational and professional zoonosis.
The contamination pathways are those described usually for infections:
Their relationship are often anthropomorphic. That causes behaviours which should be avoided: embrace a parrot on the beak, let rabbits, rodents or ferrets or even reptiles to have access to the bedroom, even less to bed, ...).
It's decisive (cage, aviary, terrarium). The level of knowledge of the animal owner regarding the physiological needs of the animal and the ideal conditions of detention is also very important.
The subjects coming from farms or individuals present a risk different from the wild specimens taken in their natural environment (parrots, reptiles, small exotic mammals ...).