Basics in hospital accommodation

The hospitalized animals, sick or operated, are very vulnerable and it is necessary to maximally protect them against superinfection.

In addition, they could be a disease healthy carrier and they could excrete more germs because of their immune deficiency. So:

During hospitalization of the same animal:

  1. droppings: must be removed immediatly.
  2. urine: 
    • the substrate should be easy to change: a clean draw sheet on part of the cage or terrarium.
    • if there is no urine disposal device (for example slatted floor) and if the animal can't urinate in a litter box, the wet substrat must have to be removed immediately.
  3. ground and  walls of the cage or terrarium: clean them every day.

Between the stay of two differents pets in a cage or terrarium:

The cage or terrarium must be completely cleaned and disinfected.

Cleaning

  • Use a detergent
  • Hot water

Disinfection

Disinfectants:

  • Spectrum (authenticated by European standards ).  
    • bactericidal: Standard EN 13727, …
      • Most of the current bacteria are relatively easy to kill. A lot of disinfectants can be used.
    • virucidal: EN 14476, …
      • some of them are very resistant. Only oxidants can be used for all of them, like bleach or VirkonTM
    • fungicidal: EN 14347, …
      • useful against ringworm, Candida, and Aspergilus 
    • sporicidal: EN 1650, …
      • Some bacteria, such as the anaerobic germs, make very resistant spores (for example Clostridium spp. in reptiles)
  • Minimum contact time
    • Defined by the manufacturer, must be respected.

Rinsing

The disinfectants may be toxic for animals, so the cages or the vivaria must be carefully rinsed.

Drying and Fallowing Period

If possible, a fallowing period is applied. At least the cage must be dry before put back another animal.